MAXIMUM YIELD USA – July 2010
Is Germinated Brown Rice an Answer to Hunger? by Peggy Bradley
Rice is the most important food in many developing countries and is a staple food for nearly half of the world’s population. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates the world rice crop production in 2007 to 2008 to be about 432 million tons. In 2005 the area used for harvesting rice was approximately 387 million acres. Research is now being conducted on raising grass hydroponically for livestock as is research on the value of hydroponicallygrown germinated brown rice, which is now a part of the food revolution.
Pioneering work by Derek Cuddeford, author of “Hydroponic Grass” (1989) and others in the 1980s led to an understanding that sprouted and newly germinated grains have higher food value than dormant seeds. This led to the introduction of hydroponics to grow food for livestock and then further research into germinated food for humans. In 2004 at a United Nations Conference, a paper from Japan announced to the world a new food product called Germinated Brown Rice (GBR) or GABA rice (Shoichi & Yukihiro, 2004).
Brown rice Brown rice is higher in nutrition than white rice. Brown rice has only the outer layer of the grain removed. White rice, no longer a viable seed, has been stripped resulting in the loss of vitamins, minerals, fiber and essential fatty acids.
The process of milling brown rice to white rice results in a loss of about 10 per cent of the product. If the population started consuming brown rice instead of white, there could be 38.7 million acres removed from production or 43 million extra tons of food available.
Globally, it is estimated that there are 850 million hungry people. Of this total, at least 550 million are in Asia. Asians consume on average about 300 pounds of rice a year. The extra rice available from the switch to brown rice could be an important step in solving hunger.
Brown rice gained some popularity in the 70s with the macrobiotic diet, which advocated brown rice. The chief problems were that brown rice took much diminished and most rice sold worldwide was still white.
The process of milling brown rice longer to cook and had a slightly to white rice results in a loss of disagreeable flavor. The popularity about 10 per cent of the product.
Germinated Brown Rice
The new brown rice from Japan is actually any brown rice that has been pre-germinated before cooking. The rice is kept at a temperature of about 100 F for eight to 24 hours to begin the sprouting process.
Most studies into the nutritional benefits are made with rice that has just started to show a slight bit of bud (0.5 to 1.0 millimeters tall) from the kernel, also known as Germinated Brown Rice (GBR).
GBR rice has been softened through processing and now can be cooked in less time. It is also easy to digest and has a wonderful nutty flavor. In Japan it has wide appeal and is establishing a market with a few companies starting to market GBR globally.
Growing Protocol For GBR rice
Some research on GBR now exists to help us understand the steps to provide the highest level of nutrition. The highest amino acid food values are obtained when the bud just starts to show. Germinating the rice longer reduces the food’s value. When testing different pH values (from 5.5 to 9.0) there was little difference in the nutritional food values. The temperature is important; cooler temperatures require longer times or may not allow germination at all. Short grain brown rice seems to have the highest increase of GABA.
Saikusa, Horino and Mori (1994) found that Gamma-Amirobutyric acid (GABA) increased dramatically when brown rice was soaked in 104 F water for eight hours to 24 hours. The enzyme Glutamate decarboxylase turns Glutamic acid into Gamma-aminobutyric acid. Germination softens the outer layer of the rice, which makes it just as easy to cook and eat as polished rice.
The nutrition analysis of Germinated Brown Rice and White rice
100g /per dry weight Germinated brown rice Energy 345Kcal Protein 7.3g Total fat 2.9g Saturated fat 0.58g Cholesterol 0mg Carbohydrate 77g Dietary fiber 2.8g Sodium (Na) 2.1mg Calcium (Ca) 8.1mg Iron (Fe) 1.1mg Magnesium (Mg) 74mg Zinc (Zn) 2.1mg GABA 16.5mg Vitamin B1 0.3mg Vitamin E 1.7mg Inositol 452mg Source: AsiaRICE Biotech., Inc. White rice 363Kcal 7.0g 0.9g 78g 0.4g 4mg 5mg 0.3mg 22mg 1.4mg 1.5mg 0.08mg 0.4mg 96mg
“Germinated Brown Rice has more fiber, three times the amount of lysine, an essential amino acid, and 10 times the amount of GABA. “
The germination process activates enzymes and allows the rice to develop higher levels of some amino acids, particularly Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA). GBR has more fiber, three times the amount of lysine, an essential amino acid, and 10 times the amount of GABA.
Okada et al. (2000) reported intake of GABA for eight weeks improved the most common mental symptoms during the menopausal and presenile period such as sleeplessness, somnipathy and depression. Jeon et al. (2003) found that GBR may be effective for suppressing liver damage.
There is currently much research being done on the health benefits of GBR. It appears that eating GBR can lower blood pressure, lower cholesterol, restore kidney function, repair liver, reduce fatigue and anxiety and may prevent cancer.
The scientific research on GBR shows that this simple change in our daily diet might help reduce chronic illnesses and improve quality of life.
It’s clear that we may have caused a lot of our modern day chronic illnesses by allowing white rice to be produced and eaten.
“The scientific research on GBR shows that this simple change in our daily diet might help reduce chronic illnesses and improve quality of life. “
Dominant enzymes within the rice that supply the nutrition for growth are activated when brown rice is germinated. This further activates enzymes and increases amino acids such as L-lysine (a necessary building block for all protein in the body) and -aminobutyric acid (GABA).Vitamins and antioxidants are increased, as is the amount of digestible fiber. New nutritional components not found in un-germinated rice are released during germination, particularly the protylendopetidase inhibitor, which has implications in the prevention and early treatment of dementia and Alzheimer’s.
GBR Germinated And Cooked In Green Tea
There is discussion on the Internet that germinating and cooking GBR rice in green tea enhances its nutritional quality even more. So far there appears to be no actual experiments or data to justify this claim. However, the green tea does not appear to harm the process and may improve the flavor.